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Initially the main reason for CASPCOM establishment was the need for cooperation in the field of environment monitoring to deal with negative consequences of rapid sea level rise in 1980-1990, which led to flooding coastal territories. Since 1995 the sea level changes marginally, however significance of CASPCOM does not decrease because of fast development of economic activities in the region and in the water area of the sea.

Alongside with this, hydrometeorological information is essential for environmental protection, conservation of Caspian Sea biodiversity and efficient use of its natural resources. Now hydrometeorologists and ecologists are interacting more closely: due to the signing of the Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Hydrometeorology of the Caspian States in 2014 there emerged a legal basis for the cooperation with the Tehran Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea.